Category Archives: Research

THE AFRICA DIABETES CONGRESS (YAOUNDE 2014)

The Africa Diabetes Congress of the International Diabetes Federation took place at the Palaise de Congress in Yaounde Cameroun from the 25th to the 28 February 2014.

Palaise de Congress
Palaise de Congress

 

The 2nd African Diabetes Congress appropriately themed: “Diabetes: Challenges and opportunities in Africa” provided an ideal opportunity for researchers, health care providers, practitioners, students, people living with diabetes to cross fertilize with colleagues from Africa and mingle with international renowned experts in the field of diabetes.

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About 1,000  participants from about 45 countries were there to raise awareness on diabetes and its impact by convening at the IDF Africa diabetes congress to exchange research and best practices on diabetes prevention, treatment and management.

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 Cross section of Participants at the ADC2014

The international Diabetes Federation (I.D.F) is the umbrella body organization of over 200 national diabetes associations in over 160 countries. It represents the interests and the growing numbers of people with diabetes and those at risk. The Federation has been leading the global diabetes community since 1950.

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Cross-section of participants at the pre-congress post graduate course on Research Methodology/Scientific writing

 A Pre-congress update course on Research Methodology/Scientific writing where about 30 young researchers from all over Africa were trained and updated on recent trends in research methodologies and scientific writing.

According to the Chairman organizing committee and former International Diabetes Federation, President Professor Mbanya the young scientists are expected to through the training received translate diabetes research and care in Africa to meet up to global standard. 

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 Discussing the challenges facing diabetes care in Africa over lunch

Simultaneously, a pre-conference update course on Advocacy was running where selected individuals from different countries attended and were trained on how to advocate, engage the government and ensure right policies are effected in their respective countries .

Policy advocacy is one of the most effective ways to achieve public health goals by ensuring that necessary resources, policies and political will are available to support, scale up, and sustain diabetes efforts within broader NCD programs.

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 Mobolaji Dauda from Nigeria and Pamela Donggo from Uganda at the Update course

We strongly believe that this congress will be one that wont be quickly forgotten as it laid a solid foundation not just for subsequent congresses but also diabetes research, prevention and care in Africa generally.

The 2nd Africa Diabetes Congress was made bilingual through an impressive translation efforts of the Medical Students of the University of Yaounde (a feat that was very professional and commendable).

The Organizers through the efforts of the platinum sponsors were able to sponsor about 600 participants for the congress, a remarkable and great achievement.

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With recent announcement of the startoff of the Africa Diabetes Study Group and Africa Diabetes Journal we are rest assured that IDF Africa through the ADC is positioning itself for the task of curbing the diabetes epidermic in the continent.

We wish to appreciate the congress organizers who through the support of El-Lilly were able to fully sponsor 2 members of The Nigeria Diabetes Online Community for the pre-congress update course and congress and also through Servier provided accommodation for 4 members of The Nigeria diabetes online community for the period of the congress.

We believe supports like this is important in not just building young researchers but also inspiring more youths into diabetes care and prevention in their respective communities all over africa.

PHOTO SPEAKS

NgdocADC2014POST GRADUATE COURSE IN RESEARCH METHODS AND SCIENTIFIC WRITING

 

IMG_0882SHOWCASING THE RICH TRADITIONAL CULTURE OF CAMEROON

 

NGdocADC2014THE OPENING CEREMONY OF THE 2ND AFRICA DIABETES CONGRESS

IMG_0856OPENING CEREMONY WITH THE MINISTER OF PUBLIC HEALTH OF CAMEROON

IMG_0857GUEST LECTURE BY GEORGE ALBERTI (UK)

 

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IMG_0851ONE OF THE SCIENTIFIC SESSIONS

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PROF MBANYA ADMONISHING THE NGDOC TEAM AT THE LILLY DIABETES CONVERSATION MAP STAND

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DIABETES WALK

 

20140226_230203-1NIGERIAN DELEGATES TO THE ADC WITH PROF TOM JOHNSON (4TH FROM THE LEFT)

 

DSC03850YOUNG RESEARCHERS FROM AFRICA

 

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LILLY HOSTED US TO A DINNER

 

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GALA NIGHT

 

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The next Africa diabetes congress will be hosted by Uganda. UGANDA 2016

DIABETES MELLITUS AND TUBERCULOSIS

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TUBERCULOSIS: THE ISSUE IN DIABETES 

Tuberculosis (TB) is an airborne disease caused by infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (M. tuberculosis, M. bovis, and M. africanum).

Tuberculosis is a major public health problem in many low- and middle-income countries, where the number of people with diabetes is also rising rapidly. Regions, such as Africa and Asia that are most heavily affected by tuberculosis are also those that have some of the highest numbers of people with diabetes, and will experience the biggest increases by 2030.

GROWING DOUBLE BURDEN 

Clinicians have observed an association between Diabetes Mellitus (DM) and TB for centuries, as far back as the ancient Roman times, even though they were unable to determine whether DM caused TB or whether TB led to the clinical manifestations of DM.

The growing prevalence of diabetes poses a challenge for TB control as uncontrolled diabetes leads to a greater risk of developing TB. A recent study showed that countries that saw an increase in diabetes prevalence also had a significant increase in the number of people with TB. This suggests that increasing diabetes prevalence could make attainment of the Millennium Development Goals on tuberculosis more difficult to achieve.

These trends reflect the important links between the diseases. Several studies have looked at the association between diabetes and tuberculosis in developed countries and found that people with diabetes are almost 3 times more likely to develop tuberculosis. These findings were also true of developing regions including Africa where one study found that the prevalence (%) of diabetes was twice as high in people with tuberculosis than in people without tuberculosis.

TUBERCULOSIS

Experimental studies investigating the relationship between Tuberculosis and Diabetes have demonstrated that DM is indeed positively associated with TB.  Studies revealed consistent evidence for an increased risk of TB among people with diabetes despite heterogeneity in study design, geographic area, underlying burden of TB, assessment of exposure and outcome, and control of potential confounders. In addition, DM patients have a significantly increased risk of developing active TB, three times higher than in persons without DM.

BATTLE AGAINST TWO

The relationship between DM and TB is bidirectional. These diseases often coexist. Suboptimal control of diabetes predisposes the patient to tuberculosis, and is one of the common causes of poor response to anti-Tuberculosis treatment. Diabetes impacts TB by:

  1. Tripling the rate of developing active TB from latent TB infection
  2. Increasing mortality and severity of disease
  3. Slowing the response to effective TB treatment.

TB and its treatment can worsen glycemic control and diabetes-related neuropathy. Tuberculosis also affects diabetes by causing hyperglycemia and causing impaired glucose tolerance. Impaired glucose tolerance is one of the major risk factors for developing diabetes.

THE DUO TO WORRY ABOUT

At the individual level, the risk of developing TB is considerably lower in persons with DM than in HIV patients. However, the much larger and rapidly growing pool of DM patients makes the global population of persons with TB and DM very similar to that seen with HIV.

In a study conducted on the United States-Mexico border, it was shown prospectively that DM contributed to 25% of TB cases whereas HIV infection contributed to ≤5%; hence as with TB-HIV, we must adapt and apply similar methods of preventing, screening and treating DM-TB patients, and ensure that we have a secure pipeline for drugs that will improve the efficacy of treatment.

WISDOM WAY OUT

The Pacific Standards for Management of Tuberculosis and Diabetes lay out a framework for the bi-directional screening for each disease when one is present, as well as provides guidance on testing, patient support, active and preventive TB treatment. This framework may be useful for other regions, and should be considered for the proper management of TB and DM.

Suggested screening for M. tuberculosis infection can be  achieved using QuantiFERON®-TB Gold In-Tube test (QFT®), along with a symptom review for prompt diagnosis and treatment of TB or latent TB infection (LTBI).  QFT has been shown to be significantly more accurate than the skin test, only requires one visit, and does not cross-react with the BCG vaccine. However QFT or the skin test do not distinguish between Latent TB Infection  and active disease, hence active TB must be excluded before starting preventive therapy.

QFT, like the skin test is an  indirect test for M. tuberculosis infection (including disease) and is intended for use in conjunction with risk assessment, radiography and other medical and diagnostic evaluations.  (QuantiFERON-TB Gold ELISA Package Insert, 2013).  Clinical assessment is always needed. Hence, active or latent TB should never be diagnosed or excluded on the sole basis of the QFT or skin test result.

This write-up was put together by Akinpelu Akintunde, a final year medical student of Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital, Sagamu, Ogun State, Nigeria.

REFERENCES

  1. The International Diabetes Federation
  2. Banyai A (1931) Diabetes and pulmonary tuberculosis. Am Rev Tuberc 24: 650-667.
  3. Root H (1934) The association of diabetes and tuberculosis. New Engl J Med 210: 1-13.
  4. Boucot KR, Dillon ES, Cooper DA, Meier P, Richardson R (1952) Tuberculosis among diabetics: the Philadelphia survey. Am Rev Tuberc 65: 1-50.
  5. Nichols GP (1957) Diabetes among young tuberculosis patients; a review of the association of the two diseases. Am Rev Tuberc 76: 1016-1030.
  6. Silwer H, Oscarsson PN (1958) Incidence and coincidence of diabetes mellitus and pulmonary tuberculosis in a Swedish county. Acta Med Scand Suppl 335: 1-48.
  7. Kim SJ, Hong YP, Lew WJ, Yang SC, Lee EG (1995) Incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis among diabetics. Tuber Lung Dis 76: 529-533.
  8. Pablos-Mendez A, Blustein J, Knirsch CA (1997) The role of diabetes mellitus in the higher prevalence of tuberculosis among Hispanics. Am J Public Health 87: 574-579.
  9. Ponce-De-Leon A, Garcia-Garcia Md Mde I., Garcia-Sancho MC, Gomez-Perez FJ, Valdespino-Gomez JL., et al. (2004) Tuberculosis and diabetes in southern Mexico. Diabetes Care 27: 1584-1590.
  10. Alisjahbana B, van Crevel R, Sahiratmadja F, den Heijer M, Maya A (2006) Diabetes mellitus is strongly associated with tuberculosis in Indonesia. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 10: 696-700.

10. Perez A, Brown HS 3rd, Restrepo BI (2006) Association between tuberculosis and diabetes in the Mexican border and non-border regions of Texas. Am J Trop Med Hyg 74: 604-611.

11. Christie Y Jeon, Megan B. Murray (2008) Diabetes mellitus increases the risk of active tuberculosis: A systematic review of 13 observational studies. PLoS Med 5(7): e152.

12. Asfandyar Khan Niazi and Sanjay Kalra (2012) Diabetes and tuberculosis: a review of the role of optimal glycemic control. Journal of Diabetes & Metabolic Disorders 2012, 11:28.

13. Pacific Island TB Control Association (2013) USA Pacific Standards for the Management of Tuberculosis and Diabetes. http://www.currytbcenter.ucsf.edu/abouttb/TB_DM_USAPI_Standards_document_12_01_2010.pdf.

14. QuantiFERON-TB Gold (QFT) ELISA Package Insert. July 2013.

 

STRATEGIES FOR IMPROVING DIABETES CARE IN NIGERIA (SIDCAIN) call for abstracts

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STRATEGIES FOR IMPROVING DIABETES CARE IN NIGERIA (SIDCAIN) call for abstracts for its 2014 Annual Scientific Conference and distinguished personality lecture holding in Ile-Ife from March 5th – 7th, 2014.

SIDCAIN was construed about 7 years ago with major objective of curbing the rising diabetes pandemic in the country through translational research. The core team comprises researchers in the field of diabetes and hypertension spread across the major tertiary institutions in the South Western States of Nigeria.

The team holds its annual non-communicable disease conference and distinguished personality lecture.

Previous events held in Ibadan, Osogbo and Sagamu whilst personalities such as Are Afe Babalola, Prof. John Idoko (NACA), former president, Chief Olusegun Obasanjo and Mr Dele Momodu (Ovation) have given the lectures.

The 2014 event will hold at the main Auditorium of Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital, Ile-Ife.
The event, as with the previous one will attract participants from all over the country and overseas.

THEME: Diabetes: Towards better Diabetes Prevention and Control

Sub-theme: DREAMS come true!

Distinguished Personality Lecturer: Dr Olusegun Mimilko, Executive Governor, Ondo State.
Keynote Speaker: Prof. Segun Fatusi, Provost, College of Health Sciences, OAU, Ile-Ife.
International Guest Speakers: Dr Dokun Ayotunde and Dr R Balogun (University of Virginia, VA, USA).

ABSTRACT SUBMISSION INSTRUCTIONS:
1. Abstracts should be in English language, typed double spaced, in Times New Roman font 12 and not exceeding 250 words.
2. Abstract should be structured into the following subheadings:

Statement of the research problem:::Objectives:::Methods:::Conclusions.
3. All abstracts must be received by Sunday February 9, 2014.
4. Submission is strictly by email to jokotade2012@yahoo.com or sidcainprojectteam@gmail.com

REGISTRATION

A. Doctors
Early registration before February 15th, 2014 – N15,000
After February 15th, 2014 or on site – N20,000

B. All other healthcare professionals:
Early registration before February 15th, 2014 – N12,000
After February 15th, 2014 or on site – N15,000

3. All Students
Early registration before February 15th, 2014 – N5,000
After February 15th, 2014 or on site – N8,000

NOTE: 10 CPD credits obtainable.

Registration payments to:
ACCOUNT NAME: SIDCAIN PROJECT ACCOUNT
BANK: GUARANTY TRUST BANK
ACCOUNT NO: 0050055367

For futher enquiries, contact:
1. SIDCAIN via sidcainprojectteam@gmail.com www.sidcain.org
2. Dr Jokotade via jokotade2012@yahoo.com
3. NGDOC via thengdoc@gmail.com

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The Second African Diabetes Congress Yaounde 2014 “Diabetes: Challenges and Opportunities in Africa”

The Second African Diabetes Congress  Yaounde 2014

“Diabetes: Challenges and Opportunities in Africa”


The Second African Diabetes Congress Yaounde-Cameroon:25th-28th February 2014 “Diabetes: Challenges and Opportunities in Africa”


The 2nd African Diabetes Congress will promote excellence in the field of diabetes.

The congress has been appropriately themed: “Diabetes: Challenges and opportunities in Africa”. The Congress will provide an ideal opportunity to cross fertilize with colleagues from Africa and mingle with international renowned experts in the field of diabetes.
The conference organizers are putting together an exciting scientific programme of the most recent diabetes evidence and best practice that will underpin the improvement in diabetes care, treatment and prevention adapted to the African region.
The congress will be held at the Palais des Congres Yaoundé -Cameroon from the 25th–28th February 2014. We look forward to welcoming you to Cameroon, Africa in Miniature!
More information can be gotten here

HEALTHY HABITS TURNED LIFESTYLE: LESSONS TO BE LEARNT FROM GRONINGEN, THE NETHERLANDS.

HEALTHY HABITS TURNED LIFESTYLE: LESSONS TO BE LEARNT FROM GRONINGEN, THE NETHERLANDS

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Groningen is the main municipality as well as the capital city of the eponymous province in The Netherlands.

With a population of around 190,000, it is the largest city in the north of the Netherlands.
An ancient city, Groningen was the regional power of the northern Netherlands, a semi-independent city-state and member of the German Hanseatic League. Groningen is a university city: the University of Groningen and Hanze University of Applied Sciences each have about 25,000 students.

World Diabetes Day

With a background knowledge of Diabetes mellitus, or simply diabetes, being a group of metabolic diseases in which a person has high blood sugar, either because the pancreas does not produce enough insulin, or because cells do not respond to the insulin that is produced.

There are 3 main classifications of Diabetes Mellitus but for the purpose of this article we would major on Type 2 DM which makes up about 90% of cases of diabetes with the other 10% due primarily to diabetes mellitus type 1 and gestational diabetes.


Obesity is thought to be the primary cause of type 2 diabetes in people who are genetically predisposed to the disease. Type 2 diabetes is initially managed by increasing exercise and dietary modification.

Rates of type 2 diabetes have increased markedly over the last 50 years in parallel with obesity: As of 2010 there are approximately 285 million people with the disease compared to around 30 million in 1985.


Long-term complications from high blood sugar can include heart disease, strokes, diabetic retinopathy where eyesight is affected, kidney failure which may require dialysis, and poor circulation of limbs leading to amputations.
The acute complication of ketoacidosis, a feature of type 1 diabetes, is uncommon. However, non-ketotic hyperosmolar coma may occur

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But a proper diet and exercise are the foundations of diabetic care, with a greater amount of exercise yielding better results. A diabetic diet that promotes weight loss is important.
 Aerobic exercise leads to a decrease in HbA1c and improved insulin sensitivity. Resistance training is also useful and the combination of both types of exercise may be most effective.

Culturally appropriate education may help people with type 2 diabetes control their blood sugar levels, and also prevent type 2 diabetes.
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Groningen has been called the “World Cycling City”, since 57% of journeys within the city are made by bicycle. The city is very much adapted to the wishes of those who want to get around without a car, as it has an extensive network of segregated cycle-paths, good public transport, and a large pedestrianized zone in the city centre.

The transformation of the historic centre into a pedestrian priority zone enables and invites walking and biking by making these active modes of transport comfortable, safe and enjoyable. These attributes are accomplished by applying the principle of “filtered permeability”.

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It means that the network configuration favours active transportation and selectively, “filters out” the car by reducing the number of streets that run through the centre. While certain streets are discontinuous for cars, they connect to a network of pedestrian and bike paths which permeate the entire centre. In addition, these paths go through public squares and open spaces increasing the enjoyment of the trip.

The logic of filtering a mode of transport is fully expressed in a comprehensive model for laying out neighbourhoods and districts – the Fused Grid.
In the Italian TV programme of investigative journalism “Report” appeared a short film, considering the use of bikes in Groningen a good practice to emulate in Italy.

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My experience at The International Student Congress of (bio)medical sciences in Groningen is a typical example of a healthy habit turned Lifestyle, I was thrilled by the fact that a city can turn cycling a good means of daily exercise into a lifestyle and I was thrilled seeing kids cycling around.
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Nigerian Medical Students at the ISCOMS (From Ukraine and Nigeria)
I believe other countries like Nigeria can emulate this great healthy habit, the hot West African weather might not allow for cycling all day long but evenings are great time to cycle. So in the future, road constructions should have bicycle lanes; there should be subsidized rates on bicycles and importation of bicycles to Nigeria must be encouraged.
All these efforts will go a long way in creating healthy lifestyles for Nigerians thereby preventing and managing type 2 diabetes among Nigerians. Also I will suggest the Nigerian Government should encourage student research exchanges through adequate funding and motivation as this is instrumental to economic and academic development, as this exposure is one not easily forgotten.

 

THE NIGERIA DIABETES ONLINE COMMUNITY CALL FOR RESEARCH FELLOWS

THE NIGERIA DIABETES ONLINE COMMUNITY CALL FOR RESEARCH FELLOWS

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The Nigeria Diabetes Online Community is calling for applications from interested individuals who wish to join her research team as members.

This call is a result of NGDOC’s commitment to research works aimed at society and community development towards an adequate care and prevention of Diabetes Mellitus.

Interested applicants must be highly interested in research on Diabetes, detail oriented, able to work independently and must be computer literate.

Applications should be sent via mail including a CV and Letter of motivation as attachments to research@ngdoc.com.

NOTE

To qualify:
1. You must be following @theNGdoc on twitter.
2. You must like our facebook page www.facebook.com/NGDOC
3. All CVs and Letters of motivation must be in the MS word format.

Deadline for this application is the 28th November, 2013. Successful applicants will be contacted thereafter.

Odewale Halimat

Co-founder & Director of Research