TRIBUTE TO LAMIN DIBBA – GAVIN GRIFFITHS

Posted by The Nigeria Diabetes Online Community on April 19, 2020 under Information, NGDOC News, Society, Uncategorized | Be the First to Comment

Though hard to accept this loss at such a young age, sending a sincere thanks for the life of Lamin. Those here who crossed paths with him will only have happy and empowered memories of him and his great character, and all he achieved. – Gavin Griffiths.

The world rose to a rude awakening of the death of a well loved and respected African young leader in diabetes whose works has endeared him among friends and colleagues. Tribute flooded on my Timeline from respected leaders and founders of diabetes organizations around the world and i thought to reach out on imprinting his memories in the heart of million and billions of Africans to come. I have therefore asked the permission of Gavin Griffiths of Diathlete to feature his Eulogy of Lamin. Thank you Gavin for this opportunity.

Project in The Gambia: ‘Empower Me Today & I Will Forever be Strong’ in the words of Lamin:

“There are different activities, sessions and events as shown in the pictures.
I have run Educational Events for both Parents and there kids yearly, Home Visit for most of Young ones, Sessions at some of the elderly Young Leader’s Residence to talk about individual challenges, Family Education at home and hospital whenever a new patient is diagnose, I have also enroll few in Skill Training School to become Self Reliance and Few have also taken up Personal Business for Economic gain, in every year I run two Camps for those with poor HBA1c results with a year to better improve their status, ICT Group and CT Group, and finally we do conduct HBA1c Testing every Four months for good monitory scheme.
These are the activities, sessions and events in my 2015-2016 SELF EMPOWERMENT PROJECT, The Gambia.
I believe that the First Doctor for a Patient with Diabetes is Him/Her self. “Empower Me Today and I Will Forever Be Strong”

A PERSONAL STORY OF LAMIN – GAVIN GRIFITHS

Writing with sadness & emptiness in heart, after the loss of a wonderful human being, Lamin Dibba, this week. But sharing his message & some cherished memories which live on, as a small tribute that I wish we didn’t have to do.
Lamin was from The Gambia. He was born 7 Dec 1988. He was diagnosed with type 1 diabetes as you might imagine under challenging circumstances in essential healthcare access, but a key supporter took Lamin under his wing, Dr Gaye, helping Lamin to receive some crucial treatments. Dr Gaye saw potential in Lamin as an advocate, where Lamin became a leader in the Gambian Diabetes Association & regularly engaged in projects to help people / families diagnosed with diabetes in the Banjul region. In 2013 Dr Gaye put Lamin forward for an opportunity of a lifetime, he became an IDF Young Leader in Diabetes & attended the World Diabetes Congress & Training in Melbourne

On a personal level, this is where I met Lamin; we landed at a similar time & were picked up together from the airport. Lamin was one of the first international friends sharing diabetes in common I had. Everybody loved Lamin. Why? Because he was kind. He was honest. He was a gentleman who wished others well, with a unique passion to make a difference from his heart. He was also a family man. He did not have the easiest upbringing when losing his dear Mother. But he helped raise his 4 sisters, whom he loved greatly and spoke of with such high admiration.

Following our meeting in Australia, he inspired me. I didn’t know how to help, all I could do was run like an idiot & try to fundraise. This is where I owe Lamin thanks. At this point in my life I had been supporting major diabetes charities at home, but had grown frustrated perhaps in the corporate / political areas in our cause. Lamin shared his fire that refreshed my view. How grassroots is the way of impact. In 2014 a project had been dreamed up, partnering with Marjorie’s Fund on a fundraiser; it entailed 7 marathons over in the US in 7 days and a tour to reach communities, sharing awareness of diabetes in lower income countries. On completion of this adventure MF donated to Lamin’s project in The Gambia which he called “Empower Me Today and I Will Forever Be Strong.”

Following Melbourne, Lamin had also become good friends of Elizabeth Rowley (he thought the world of her) and the work of T1International, who further equipped him with advocacy training and support to develop projects and make them succeed. And succeed they did! With some funding to his local association, they had a hba1c testing device and made 4 month check ups to closely monitor local patients. Lamin and his team conducted home visits and educational programmes, they made camps and workshops. In one case, they managed to help a person go from a hba1c% above 14 to 7.9 within a 2 year span. In 2015, as the old YLD system used to work, Lamin was invited to return and complete his training at the World Diabetes Congress in Vancouver. He had the opportunity to present his work to the young leaders & at the congress.

One fond memory I have was when Lamin was preparing for his presentation, we had a lot of sessions and little time, so I ‘played the D card’ (said that Lamin wasn’t too well to get out of the session, though Paul might have known) and we gained an hour or so to prepare slides and practise. But to begin, we had to take a trip outside where there were white sheets on the ground; Lamin had never seen the snow before so a photoshoot was required!
He smashed the presentations, with the heart and spirit he always contained. In the years to follow – without going into the details of the IDF situation which followed – when times were tough, with Lamin in the YLD position of Africa regional chair, I knew he was someone to always turn to and rely on. He was a friend. And in our chats we would dream up how to change the world, put it all to rights.

He faced some hurdles with healthcare access. Initially he was supported until the age of 25 via an external programme that provided funds for essential diabetes costs. Once passing that age, or for those not under that programme, the cost of insulins and testing strips were self funded – not easy when in a location where trying to earn general funds to survive on is hard enough. This leaves a lot of people with little choice but to ration. Dr Gaye remained a protection for Lamin through most of those times, doing his best to support his advocate. Lamin dreamed of seeing the world, exploring a bit; and he achieved that against all odds. He saw Melbourne, Vancouver, and in 2017 he made it to Abu Dhabi, where again I’m sure any who met him there he left a lasting impression on. He passed over in Canada

Lamin was loved and appreciated by all he met; a hero we won’t forget. He stood for productive changes for those with diabetes, especially for those facing hardships and restrictions across Africa.
RIP brother.

GAVIN GRIFFITHS

Gavin Griffiths is the founder of Leagues of Diathlete a team of passionate ‘DiAdvocates’ living with T1 diabetes, and a connected alliance of diabetes patient organization shared around the world.

Sarah Akalugo to represent Nigeria in South Africa

Posted by The Nigeria Diabetes Online Community on October 1, 2019 under Diabetes Education, Information, News, NGDOC News, Society, Uncategorized | Be the First to Comment

Sarah Akalugo will be representing NGdoc at the forthcoming Pamoja Advocacy Training in SouthAfrica

We are excited to announce the selection of Sarah Akalugo to represent The Nigeria Diabetes Online Community at the forthcoming Pamojan Advocacy conference in South Africa.

This Pamojan advocacy training is organized by T1International – a UK based NGO and Sonia Nabeta Foundation – a US Based non profit with the aim to train Type 1 diabetes Africans across Africa on advocacy, strategies and policies approaches to diabetes care within the continent.

The training will bring together Type 1 from across the continent to build a cohesive force towards creating awareness about diabetes and combating the social stigma associated with living with diabetes in the continent.

Sarah who is a member of The Nigeria Diabetes Online Commmunity and also a community diabetes advocate looks forward to maximizing this opportunity.

We wish Sarah the best and look forward to her representing Nigeria well at the training and translate the knowledge acquired into awareness and advocacy strategies in Nigeria.

For more information on the Pamojan Advocates visit here

NGdoc partners with OOUTH to ensure insulin availability to children living with diabetes.

Posted by The Nigeria Diabetes Online Community on February 22, 2019 under Information, News, NGDOC News, Society | Be the First to Comment

Last year our co-founder launched an appeal to sponsor a child living with diabetes get essential medicine and consumables.
Thanks to our donors we were able to sponsor 5 children living with diabetes at the Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital, Sagamu, Ogun State, Nigeria for the year 2018.

With your help we were not just only able to sponsor these kids and ensuring steady supply of insulin throughout the year but we also have insulin dedicated to the children emergency, so no life will be lost as a result of inability to buy insulin at the Children Emergency Room.
Steady strips were also made available to avail them the opportunity for continuous monitoring of their blood glucose.

On behalf of Barnabas Michelle, Bello Aminat, Nana Amisu, Daniel Timilehin and Racheal Favor we say a big thank you to those who supported this laudable cause and also anticipate their steady commitment for the coming year. If you wish to be a part of this project kindly send us an email on thengdoc(at)gmail(dot)com. Thank you

AFFORDABLE MEDICINE – INSULIN4ALL

Posted by The Nigeria Diabetes Online Community on November 12, 2018 under Diabetes Education, Information, NGDOC News, Uncategorized | Be the First to Comment

“#Insulin rationing is a crime against humanity. It shouldn’t happen. It is like a genocide; you’re not using machetes but you are systematically killing people”

These were the words from my mouth as i sit as a panelist in the Insulin4all panel of The Affordable Medicines Now Conference in Washignton D.C.

The Affordable Medicines Now is a training conference designed to build skills, knowledge and community among the activists (advocates) who power the movement for affordable medicines at the state, federal and international levels.

Hosted by O’NEILL INSTITUTE FOR NATIONAL AND GLOBAL HEALTH LAW and PUBLICCITIZEN with partnership from various local and international orgaisations; the objective was clear “Medications must be affordable” and its absolutely essential for us all to hold all stakeholders responsible.

From Rep Ro Khanna to Rep Peter Welch to Senators Cory Booker, Tina Schakowsky the messages were clear:

Medical innovations are from universities, public institutes of health (supported with tax payers money); while most of the medical innovators are not after the billions, their innovations are branded by MBA guys and profiteered.
Prescription drugs should be affordable.
The loopholes in governance that allows massive profiteering must be blocked and congress and governments must work in unison to ensure affordable health is for all.

In the midst of the well organized, highly educative meetup is my meeting Ola Ojewunmi a nigerian american disabled activist, founder @ProjectASCEND,cancer and 2 organ transplant survivor who spoke on the intersectionality (I was awed at the strength and resilience of Ola and i believe a lot of african feminist have a lot to learn from her view on intersectionality)

More about the event can be found below

INSULIN4ALL AND HOW IT AFFECTS AFRICA

Africa although experiencing significant economic changes faces an epidemic of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) including diabetes.

Some 425 million people worldwide, or 8.8% of adults 20-79 years, are estimated to have diabetes.
About 79% live in low and middle income countries. The number of people with diabetes increases to 451 million if the age is expanded to 18-99 years.

In Africa, an estimated 15.5 (9.8-27.8) million adults aged 20-79 years have diabetes, representing a regional prevalence of 2.1 (6%).

Africa also has the highest proportion of undiagnosed diabetes; over two-thirds (69.2%) of people with diabetes are unaware they have the disease and almost a third of them need insulin – both insulin-dependent type 1 children living with diabetes and people living with type 2 diabetes who need to take insulin.

An estimated 50,600 children and adolescents under the age of 20 are living with type 1 diabetes with nigeria being the 9th largest country with children living with diabetes worldwide.

INSULIN PRICING AND ITS TOLL ON AFRICA

Availability of insulin:

The inconvenience and additional travel costs as a result of unavailability of insulin in some localities will definitely lead to disrupted treatment and eventual poor management of blood glucose and eventually lead to complications.

Affordability of insulin

The pricing cost of insulin is high which makes it unaffordable.
In Nigeria, for instance it costs about 12usd to get a vial of insulin which may look relatively cheap as compared to a country like The United State of America; however for a country like nigeria where 92.1% live in poverty this is equivalent to a 10 working day wages.

Policy implications

The out of pocket cost of hospital visits, insulin and other consumables makes it difficult for People living with diabetes to maintain their blood glucose and also visit hospitals regularly for checkups.

Lack of healthcare workers and facilities factor in the lack of adequate care for example in countries like uganda, sierra leon,the gambia to mention a few.

Only 11 countries of the 58 countries in africa has universal health coverage.

Religion and Culture

A major issue affecting diabetes care especially with children living with diabetes is the tendency of parents and caregivers to quickly fall back to alternatives in cases of inability to buy insulin or visit hospitals.
Top of the list of alternatives are the religious and traditional centers.
Major setback to these care is the limited understanding and unwillingness to refer peopele to hospitals for adequate care.
This most often leads to complications and in some cases death.

It is to this end that it is important for us all as individuals to demand for action from the executive and legislative arms of government into ensuring
Insulin access being a high priority for government

Diabetes programmes must be integrated and evidence based, highlighting the scale of the problem and areas for effective intervention

1)Reduction in the purchase price of insulin and medical devices
2)Improving geographical access to insuilin by ensuring NCD clinics are available at primary care health centers closer to people in rural areas
3)Incorporate Insulin into healthcare coverage schemes

References:

Drug Revolving Fund (DRF) BY PHARM BUKOLA FABIYI

Posted by The Nigeria Diabetes Online Community on October 29, 2018 under News, Research, Uncategorized | Be the First to Comment

I was engaging my followers on the need for constructive methods of essential medicine financing when Pharmacist Bukola Fabiyi mentioned “Drug Revolving Funds” as a potent and strategic means of ensuring people do not die due to live saving medications like insulin.

So i pleaded with her to submit an article about this which she did and i hope our readers can begin to task the government at local, state and federal level into making sure the right things are done towards ensuring essential medicines are made available, affordable and accessible to everyone irrespective of the social status.

Drug Revolving Fund (DRF)

The Bamako Initiative (BI) was introduced by WHO/UNICEF in the late 1980’s to improve access to essential drugs for the most vulnerable in the society and thus improve the health outcomes (Chukwuani et al., 2006).

Essential medicines, as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO), are the medicines that “satisfy the priority health care needs of the population”. These are the medications to which people should have access at all times in sufficient amounts.

Essential medicines selected for diabetes are “Insulins and analogues” and “Oral blood glucose lowering medicines”

The DRF is a method of financing medicine in which, after an initial capital investment, drug supplies are replenished with monies collected from the sales of drugs according to the world health organization. It is an effective strategy for ensuring regular drug supply in the healthcare delivery system.

This scheme according to the research conducted by ogbonna however has not been successful due to the following reasons:

  • Poor management
  • Mis-application of the Fund
  • Purchasing of drugs at exorbitant prices
  • Lumping of the proceeds of the fund into a general account
  • Non-reimbursement of the cost of drugs for exempted patients.

According to Gazelle News, May 14, 2013, it stated that 17 states went to understudy and adopt Ekiti’s unified DRF.

A case study was also carried out and evaluated on the efficiency in the drug supply system in Kano state in 2013. Kano state was able to increase their procurement significantly from N133 million in 2008 to N1 billion in 2013 without additional financial support. This was managed and supported by key institutions.

To ensure the success of DRF, quality medicines must be identified, the medicine must be affordable and the monitoring and evaluation of the DRF facility must be achieved in accordance to the set performance targets (Ogbonna and Nwako, 2016).

The Central medical stores in Lagos was renovated in 2013 through funding from Non-Governmental Organisation and Federal Ministry of Health (NGO/FMOH). The Lagos state ministry of health has gone into collaboration with PATHS (Partnership for Transforming Health Systems) and private suppliers of medicines to enhance the operation of sustainable DRF system.

References:

Ogbonna, B. O., and Nwako, C. N. (2016) Essential Drug Revolving Fund Scheme in Nigeria, from the Edge of a Precipice towards Sustainability. Journal of Advances in medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences. Vol 8(2), Pp1-8.

WHO (2009) How to establish a successful revolving drug fund: the experience of Khartoum state in the Sudan. Available [online] from here

A WONDERFUL TRIP TO GHANA FOR DIABETES ADVOCACY TRAINING – Omolade Onafowokan

Posted by The Nigeria Diabetes Online Community on October 15, 2018 under Diabetes Education, Information, News, NGDOC News, Society | Be the First to Comment

I had the opportunity of attending an advocacy program on the 22nd – 26th of August 2018. I went as a representative of my country Nigeria (The Nigeria Diabetes Online Community). The venue of the program was at the University of Ghana, Yiri lodge, Accra.

The advocacy program was organized by the SONIA NABETA FOUNDATION, DIABETES YOUTH CARE and Sponsored by T1 INTERNATIONAL, there were also many invited advocates from different country.

At exactly 9am on the 23rd of august the founder of T1 INTERNATIONAL, Elizabeth , open with the following contents. “The meaning of diabetes advocacy, T1 diabetes aim, Importance of diabetes awareness, advocacy plan, advocacy goal.”

After this inspiring step and perfect explanation of what she meant, she gave every advocate an assignment to do in his/her country. It was the most orderly and systematic arrangement I have experienced.

I learnt about ways of improving public awareness through diabetes education, because not all people that are diagnosed of diabetes accept the condition and the fact that they don’t accept means they are not willing to learn about diabetes.

Also, I also learnt about diabetes advocacy aim which helps to raise public awareness round the world in terms of access to insulin, test strip, supporting people with diabetes, organizing diabetes resources and campaigning for world diabetes day.  I learnt about the means of taking action to achieve a specific change in policy practice that could benefit people with diabetes based on good advocacy.

I learnt about speaking on what is important to us, by ensuring that voices of people living with diabetes are heard and by making a difference, standing up for our health right. It is a way of fighting for long term change so more people can have a better life with diabetes.

In numerous ways, I benefited from the experience. First, it paved way for me to know how my goal could be achieved based on advocacy’s key message. Second, the lecture enables me find a remedy to any advocacy issue I may encounter.  Finally, the experience I had was that I was able to gather a first – hand information on how my goal could be easily achieved.

My action plan is to organize a diabetes education program at school in November period, giving them information on what diabetes entails, because misconception about diabetes is one of the health challenges we face in our community and this brings about mismanagement of diabetes. “EDUCATION IS KEY”.

My goal is to make sure students are able to understand the facts and initiative about diabetes.

A Bad Case- An Original Comedy Series Surrounding Diabetes

Posted by The Nigeria Diabetes Online Community on October 8, 2018 under Diabetes Education, Information, News, Society | Be the First to Comment

A Bad Case is an original comedy series about four friends and what happens when diabetes shows up at the worst possible moment. It is  a message of hope to the world. It’s comedy about when diabetes goes all wrong and easily relatable.

According to Erin Spinento who also directed the movie:

Hollywood has consistently gotten our story wrong. They have used diabetes as a handy plot tool to raise the stakes for a story. From minor mistakes to huge blunders, they are sharing an inaccurate story of what it means to live with diabetes.

It is time to change that narrative. It is time to have our stories told accurately and in depth. A Bad Case is the story of four friends who handle their diabetes very differently. There is a good chance you will see yourself in at least one of the characters on screen. For the first time, a viewer might be able to relate to someone just like her, who has the same outlook or quirks, who has developed the same strategies for dealing.

Knowing how crucial a positive outlook is on doing a good job of taking care of diabetes, a series that focuses on diabetes and humor could have an incredible impact on those who are struggling with the difficulty of this condition.

Personally, the only way I can deal with such a long-term and difficult situation is to find the humor, even if it is a sort of gallows humor. When we can come to a point of laughing at the absurd difficulty, we gain perspective and a renewed sense of strength to keep on fighting.  

I want to produce this series to explore a new medium for pursuing the same mission I have always had when it comes to interacting with the diabetes community; to empower people to take amazing care of their diabetes.

You can watch, follow the series and support the project here

For interviews or more info, please contact:

Erin Spineto, Sea Peptide Productions. erin@seapeptide.com

Free foot checks for people with diabetes

Posted by The Nigeria Diabetes Online Community on August 21, 2018 under News | Be the First to Comment

As Rainbow Specialist Medical Centre celebrates her  anniversary, they’ve organized a training for health workers on skills in diabetes care as well as free foot checks for patients living with diabetes.

 

This would be during the 5th Annual Diabetes Foot and Podiatry Workshop organized at Dover Hotel, Lekki.

 

Medical Director of the centre and coordinator of the Diabetes Podiatry Initiative Nigeria (DPIN), Dr. Afoke Isiavwe, in a statement, said the workshop, the 5th edition, is being organised to address the high rate of amputation among Nigerians living with diabetes, which has been reported to be as high as 53.2 per cent of the number of people with foot ulcer in some centres. This makes diabetes foot the most common cause of non-traumatic amputation in the lower extremities in Nigeria and elsewhere in the world.

International training faculty from the World Walk Foundation, Jamaican Chapter, will conduct the 2018 edition of the workshop, according to the release.

The focus of the training would be on primary health care workers as they are the first point of call in diabetes care.

“It is important to equip these group of healthcare workers with necessary skills in these two common conditions to detect initiate correct treatment and also know when to refer patients for further care,” the release further said.

 

How Real Madrid’s Nacho did not let Diabetes Stop Him

Posted by The Nigeria Diabetes Online Community on June 27, 2018 under Information, NGDOC News, Society | Be the First to Comment

Heartbreak is an overused word in football, tagged on to every last-minute defeat, relegation or omission from a squad list. Real Madrid and Spain defender Nacho Fernandez Iglesias knows what it really means.

Real Madrid and Spain defender Nacho. Picture: Instagram / Nacho Fernandez Iglesias

Real Madrid and Spain defender Nacho. Picture: Instagram / Nacho Fernandez Iglesias

‘I was about 12 years old and had been at Real Madrid for a couple of years. It was a dream come true for a young boy to play in that shirt,’ he says.

‘I was about to go off and play a tournament with Real Madrid but I didn’t feel right.

‘I had this constant need to pee and I was drinking lots and lots of water. My mother was worried.

‘She decided to call the hospital. They carried out some tests and my blood-sugar levels were through the roof. I was diagnosed with (type 1) diabetes.

‘On the Friday the doctor told me there was no way I could go on playing football. Imagine any 12-year-old kid being told that. It was awful.’

Real Madrid and Spain defender Nacho. Picture: Instagram / Nacho Fernandez Iglesias

Real Madrid and Spain defender Nacho. Picture: Getty Image

It was 2002 and as well as playing in the club’s boys’ teams, Nacho was a Madrid fan who idolised Fernando Hierro and Zinedine Zidane. His dream of following Zidane into the first team had been crushed but the heartbreak would be short-lived.

‘On the Monday I went back into the hospital and I saw a different doctor, Dr Ramirez,’ he explains, and there is warmth in his voice when he says that second doctor’s name.

‘I was so happy because he said the opposite was true. He said sport was the most important thing for me and I had to carry on playing and competing. It wasn’t true that my condition meant I couldn’t be a sportsman. And here I am still fighting.’

Nine years later Jose Mourinho gave Nacho  his Real Madrid debut. Zidane is now his manager. He’s on his way to Kiev for his third Champions League final and then off to Russia with Spain.

The 28-year-old may be Madrid’s ‘fifth’ defender but many supporters would have him in the team. He is one of their own. They idolise him as the anti-galactico who still lives in the Madrid town of Alcala de Henares where he grew up and not in a gated millionaires-only neighbourhood.

If he does start on the bench on Saturday there will be no devastation. After being told he would never have a career, he is just happy to be there. Happy to have proved a player can cope with diabetes and still reach the top. ‘Diabetes doesn’t mean as a young kid you can’t have a normal life and practising sport is the most important thing in combating it,’ he says.

‘I have to give myself injections every day and I have to take care with food and drink that have a high sugar level. But sport for a person with diabetes is fundamental.’

When his debut came, it was Mourinho who gave it to him. He says: ‘I’ve only got good things to say about Mourinho. It’s not true that he doesn’t give young players a chance. He gave my brother Alex (now at Cadiz) his debut too, before me. In our family there is a lot of love for Mourinho.’

Nacho’s progression is not just an example for kids with medical conditions, he is also a beacon for homegrown players.

‘The canteranos (youth-team graduates) can be the soul of the club. Madrid is a difficult club to break through at because they have always had the best players. But the presence of homegrown players alongside the superstars has been fundamental.’

Zidane will hope that combination can deliver against Liverpool on Saturday night.

‘They have three spectacular players up front,’ says Nacho. ‘They are quick and they score goals. They will make it difficult but we have the defenders to deal with the threat.’

BBC presenter apologises for ‘confused start’ due to hypoglycemia on air.

Posted by The Nigeria Diabetes Online Community on December 5, 2017 under News, Uncategorized | Be the First to Comment

A BBC World service presenter, Alex Ritson was presenting at about 5 am in the Newsroom on Friday when his listeners heard him stumble on some of his words.

The presenter ,who has Type 1 diabetes has apologized for a “confused start”  saying he had a “low sugar attack” just as he went on air.

He was discussing about the Pope’s visit to Bangladesh when he suddenly was speaking slowly and difficult to understand

“I have Type 1 diabetes and I had a low sugar attack, a ‘hypo’, just as we came on air which caused me a little confusion in my opening sequences , so many apologies for that.”

A BBC spokeswoman said

“One of our presenters was a little unwell while on air this morning.”

”The presenter came back on air later in the programme and explained to listeners that they had Type 1 diabetes and were feeling better ”

So many listeners have commended him for that.

While so many of us think diabetes is just a problem of high blood sugar, it really is a struggle between high sugar levels and low sugar levels that result from insulin use. The patient is basically struggling to find a balance.

Hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) occurs in people with diabetes when their blood sugar goes beneath 4mmol/l (70mg/dl) but the value varies for most people.

Early signs and symptoms of diabetic hypoglycemia include:

Shakiness, Dizziness, Sweating, Hunger, Irritability or moodiness, Anxiety or nervousness, Headache

In more severe cases, there can be confusion, unconsciousness and even death.

To know more about hypoglycemia, you can check this

 Hypoglycemia training programme